Computer Glossary And Terminologies:
Central Processing Unit (CPU):
The CPU is a computer’s heart and brain. It receives data, executes instructions, and processes data. It communicates with I/O devices that send and receive data to and from the CPU.
The backside bus is an internal bus on the microprocessor that communicates with the internal cache memory. The front-side bus is the main bus for data transfer to and from the CPU, memory, chipset, and AGP socket. The CPU contains internal memory units known as registers. These registers contain data, instructions, counters, and addresses that are used in the information processing of the ALU.
Random Access Memory (RAM):
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the hardware in a computing device that stores the operating system (OS), application programs, and data in use so that the device’s processor can access them quickly.RAM is a computer’s primary memory. It reads and writes data much faster than other types of storage, such as a hard disk drive (HDD), solid-state drive (SSD), or optical drive.
Random Access Memory is a volatile storage medium. That is, data is stored in RAM while the computer is turned on, but it is lost when the computer is turned off. When the computer reboots, the operating system and other files are reloaded into RAM, typically from an HDD or SSD.RAM cannot store permanent data due to its volatility. RAM is similar to a person’s short-term memory, while a hard disk drive is analogous to a person’s long-term memory.
Storage Memory / Hard Disk (HDD):
A Hard Disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile computer storage device that contains rotating magnetic disks or platters.It is a secondary storage device used to permanently store data, with Random Access Memory (RAM) serving as the primary memory device.Non-volatile means that data is kept even if the computer is turned off.A hard disk drive is also referred to as a hard drive.
Operating System (OS):
The operating system is the “master control application” software that runs the computer. It is the first program to load when the computer boots up, and its main component, the kernel, is always in memory.The operating system establishes the standards for all application programs that run on the computer, such as the Web server. For most user interface and file management operations, the applications communicate with the operating system.It serves as an intermediary between computer hardware and the user by providing a platform for running system and application software.When you turn on the device, the operating system begins to run and stops when you turn it off.
Graphical User Interface (GPU):
GPUs were originally designed to accelerate 3D graphics rendering. They became more adaptable and programmable over time, expanding their capabilities.With advanced lighting and shadowing techniques, graphics programmers were able to create more interesting visual effects and realistic scenes.
Other developers began to use GPU power to dramatically accelerate additional workloads in High Performance Computing (HPC), deep learning, and other areas.The GPU evolved as an adjunct to its close cousin, the CPU (Central Processing Unit).While CPUs have continued to improve performance through architectural innovations, faster clock speeds, and core additions, GPUs are specifically designed to accelerate computer graphics workloads.
Refresh Rate is also known as frame rate, horizontal scan rate, vertical frequency, or frequency.The Refresh Rate of a CRT monitor is measured in Hertz and indicates how many times per second the image on the monitor screen is refreshed.A monitor with a refresh rate of 75 Hz, for example, means the screen will redraw 75 times per second.
Local devices can connect and communicate with one another using Ethernet technology, whether to share files, use the same printer, share an Internet connection, game together, or even stream local media.
Optical Disk Drive (ODD):
An Optical Disk Drive (ODD) reads or writes data to an optical disc using a laser light.CDs, DVDs, and Blu-Ray discs are examples of these. This enables you to listen to music or watch movies from pre-recorded discs.Computer software is frequently distributed on one of these discs, so you’ll need an optical drive to install it.Most modern drives allow you to write to an empty disc, allowing you to make your own music CDs or a backup copy of critical data.
Heat Sink And Fan (HSF):
A Heat Sink and Fan (HSF) is an active cooling solution used in computer systems to cool integrated circuits, most commonly the Central Processing Unit (CPU).Almost all computers have heat sinks to keep the CPU cool and prevent overheating.
However, the heat sink itself can become too hot at times. This can occur if the CPU is operating at full capacity for an extended period of time or if the air around the computer is simply too hot.As a result, a fan is frequently used in conjunction with a heat sink to keep both the CPU and the heat sink at an acceptable temperature.This combination is colloquially known as a “heat sink and fan,” or HSF.
The fan pushes hot air away from the computer by moving cool air across the heat sink.Each CPU includes a thermometer that monitors the processor’s temperature. If the temperature rises too high, the fan or fans near the CPU may accelerate to assist in cooling the processor and heat sink.